Intelligent manufacturing is an important method for transforming and upgrading enterprise intelligence. Studying the influencing factors of enterprises, intelligent manufacturing can help enterprises formulate more targeted intelligent manufacturing development strategies according to their own stage characteristics to accelerate the intelligent development. The concept of intelligent manufacturing ecosystem is proposed. By exploring the evolution process of intelligent manufacturing ecosystems, a three-stage theoretical model of influencing factors of intelligent manufacturing of enterprises is constructed. The theoretical model and related assumptions are verified using the empirical data of manufacturing enterprises of many provinces and cities in China. The results show that most factors in the digital stage, network stage, and intelligent stage significantly affect the development of enterprise intelligent manufacturing systems. This study provides theoretical reference and suggestions for manufacturing enterprises to develop intelligent manufacturing.